Nov 11 However, fighting ceased seven months earlier when an armistice, or temporary cessation of hostilities, between the Allied nations and Germany went into effect on the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month. The United States Congress officially recognized the end of World War I when it passed a concurrent resolution on June 4,with these words: Whereas the 11th of Novembermarked the cessation of the most destructive, sanguinary, and far reaching war in human annals and the resumption by the people of the United States of peaceful relations with other nations, which we hope may never again be severed, and Whereas it is fitting that the recurring anniversary of this date should be commemorated with thanksgiving and prayer and exercises designed to perpetuate peace through good will and mutual understanding between nations; and Whereas the legislatures of twenty-seven of our States have already declared November 11 to be a legal holiday:
The war can be represented as totalitarian regimes verses democratic regimes, but that is a somewhat simplistic analysis because rivalry and jealousy between the two sides was a fundamental issue.
Germany felt that it was entitled to an empire; Britain, France, and even Belgium possessed extensive overseas territory while Germany had just a few colonies.
The democratization process, though, was more advanced among the Allies than in Germany and her main ally, the Ottoman Empire.
Humanity should learn from the legacy of this war that war cannot end war—it can only lead to more violence. The higher principle of peaceful resolution of differences attracted much interest after when the League of Nations was formed, but the nations of the world were unwilling to establish this as an effective body, being reluctant to give it any real power.
President Woodrow Wilson had been one of its chief architects but the U. This assassination set in motion a series of fast-moving events that escalated into a full-scale war. The cause of the conflict, however, is complex.
Historians and political scientists have grappled with this question for nearly a century without reaching a consensus. The treaty that ended the war required Germany to admit to being the aggressor Article but this was achieved in the context of Germany's defeat, economic sanctions, and the threat of renewed hostilities.
The damage this caused to national pride would help Adolf Hitler 's rise to power. Alliances Political scientists regard the building of alliances as a cause, specifically the formation of the Triple Entente and Triple Alliance.
Alliances emboldened participating nations, leading each to believe that they had powerful backing. Both camps functioned in unique ways that contributed to the spread of war.
For the Triple Alliance, the strong relationship between Germany and Austria expanded the conflict to a level where it would include at least four participants.
Russia, France, and Britain had a relationship that was much less certain incontributing to the fact that each made the decision to go to war without collaborative consultation and with their own interests in mind.
Arms races The German-British naval arms race drastically intensified after the launch of the HMS Dreadnought, a revolutionary battleship that made all previous battleships obsolete. A major naval arms race in shipbuilding developed, related to the concept of new imperialism, furthering the interest in alliances.
Kennedy argues that both nations adopted U. Rear Admiral Alfred Thayer Mahan's conclusion that control of the oceans was vital to a great nation. Kennedy, Additionally, this concentration kept related industries active and unemployment down while minimizing internal strife through the focus on a common, patriotic goal.
Different scholars have different opinions about the degree to which the arms race was itself a cause of the war. Ferguson points out that Britain easily maintained her advantage.
On the other hand, both sides were prepared for war. Ferguson, Plans, distrust, and mobilization: The First out of the Gate theory Many political scientists argue that the German, French, and Russian war plans automatically escalated the conflict.
Fritz Fischer and his followers emphasized the inherently aggressive nature of Germany's Schlieffen Plan, which outlined German strategy if at war with both France and Russia. Conflict on two fronts meant that Germany had to eliminate one opponent quickly before attacking the other, relying on a strict timetable.
France's well defended border with Germany meant that an attack through Belgian and possibly Dutch territory was necessary, creating a number of unexpected problems. All three created an atmosphere where generals and planning staffs were anxious to take the initiative and seize decisive victories using these elaborate mobilization plans with precise timetables.The war ended in the late fall of , after the member countries of the Central Powers signed armistice agreements one by one.
Germany was the last, signing its armistice on November 11, As a result of these agreements, Austria-Hungary was broken up into several smaller countries. World War I marked the end of the old order in Europe, and the beginning of what has been called the "American Century." The United States wasn't a nation ready for war in With a small army and a pitiful navy, the U.S.
was no match for either side in the great conflagration in Flanders' Fields. Trench warfare on the Western Front may have captured the popular imagination, but the First World War was very much a maritime conflict as well. World War One ended in November During , two major offensives took place on the Western Front, both based on movement as opposed to the trench mentality of the previous years.
January 14 th: Great Yarmouth bombarded by the German Navy. World War I – known at the time as “The Great War” - officially ended when the Treaty of Versailles was signed on June 28, , in the Palace of Versailles outside the town of Versailles, France.
Squadron in World War I. No Squadron RAF formed on 1 April out of No 11 Squadron RNAS, which itself had re-formed as a bomber squadron at Petit Synthe on 10 March after a brief existence as a RNAS fighter unit from March to August