Saul McLeodupdated Cognitive psychology is the scientific study of the mind as an information processor.
According to the opponent-process theory, habituation to repeated stimuli causes two processes. The first, known as the A-process, is an almost reflexive increase or decrease in some response. The second, called the B-process, causes an opposite or opposing response.
The opponent-process theory has been used to explain drug-tolerance development. During the first phase, a natural reflex and a neutral stimulus were established. During the second phase, the neutral stimulus and the stimulus causing the natural reflex were repeatedly paired.
During the third phase, the neutral stimulus alone caused some form of the natural reflex to occur. In classical conditioning, a neutral stimulus is paired with a stimulus that elicits a reflex or other response until the formerly neutral stimulus alone elicits a similar response. The stimulus that causes the natural reflex is called the unconditioned stimulus UCS ; the reflex itself is designated the unconditioned response UCR.
The neutral stimulus that is paired with the UCS is the conditioned stimulus CSand the learned response to the conditioned stimulus is the conditioned response CR.
Conditioned Responses Over Time: However, the learned relationship between the CS and the UCS isn't completely forgotten, as is demonstrated by reconditioning and spontaneous recovery.
In reconditioning, the relationship between the CS and the UCS is relearned as the stimuli are paired once again. This time the CS will elicit the CR much more quickly.
Stimulus Generalization and Discrimination Stimulus generalization occurs when a stimulus similar but not identical to the original stimulus also elicits a response.
Stimulus discrimination is a complementary process through which organisms learn to differentiate between stimuli that are similar but not identical to the CS.
Second-order conditioning occurs when a second conditioned stimulus predicts the presence of the first conditioned stimulus, which predicts the presence of the UCS.
Nausea is likely to be a conditioned response to an internal stimulus such as taste conditioned taste aversionand pain is likely to be a conditioned response to an external stimulus such as noise. Some Applications of Classical Conditioning Phobias.
Phobias are fears of objects or situations that are not harmful. Classical conditioning can both produce via stimulus generalization and eliminate through systematic desensitization phobias.
Some ranchers have set out mutton laced with lithium for wolves and coyotes. The dizziness and severe nausea UCR caused by the lithium becomes associated with the smell and taste of mutton CSthus making sheep an undesirable meal. A puff of air directed at your eye is an UCS that causes you to blink.
A light preceding the air puff can elicit a CR of a blink.
For many behaviors, the stimuli that follow an action are important. In other words, people learn to respond in a way that brings about positive consequences.Cognitive and Biological Psychology.
Cognitive Psychology is a wide-reaching area of psychology, closely aligned with Biological Psychology and Neuroscience, which focuses on the scientific study of thinking, behaviour and performance.
The Cognitive Perspective The Biological Perspective Putting It Together:Diathesis-Stress in Action LECTURE OUTLINE I. ANXIETY A.
Cognitive and Biological Psychology. Cognitive Psychology is a wide-reaching area of psychology, closely aligned with Biological Psychology and Neuroscience, which focuses on the scientific study of thinking, behaviour and performance. Cognitive psychology flourished at the beginning of the 21st century, and its principles have been applied to clinical and counseling psychology, personality theory, developmental psychology, social psychology, comparative psychology forensics and legal psychology. The cognitive approach began to revolutionize psychology in the late ’s and early ’s, to become the dominant approach (i.e., perspective) in psychology by the late s. Interest in mental processes had been gradually restored through the work of Piaget and Tolman.
What distinguishes fear from anxiety? 1. Fear is a state of immediate alarm in response to a serious threat to one’s well-being 56 CHAPTER 5 2.
Anxiety is a state of alarm in response to a vague sense of threat. The cognitive approach began to revolutionize psychology in the late ’s and early ’s, to become the dominant approach (i.e., perspective) in psychology by the late s. Interest in mental processes had been gradually restored through the work of Piaget and Tolman.
Chapter Outlines Learning Objectives Biological psychologists have found that stimulation of "pleasure centers" in the brain is a powerful reinforcer, suggesting a physiological component to reinforcement.
COGNITIVE PROCESSES IN LEARNING Cognitive processes, such as how people store, represent, and use information, can influence learning.
IB Psychology notes on The cognitive level of analysis: General learning outcomes - Outline principles that define the cognitive level of analysis. The biological level of analysis. General learning outcomes; GLO1: Outline principles that define the cognitive level of analysis.
Introduction. State what you are doing in the essay ;. Developmental Psychology Notes I. To what extent do biological, cognitive and socio-cultural factors influence human development? (Gender Role Formation) II. Evaluate psychological research (that is, theories and/or studies) relevant to developmental psychology (Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive .