Clinical microbiology of the dengue virus

Laboratory diagnosis methods for confirming dengue virus infection may involve detection of the virus, viral nucleic acid, antigens or antibodies, or a combination of these techniques. After the onset of illness, the virus can be detected in serum, plasma, circulating blood cells and other tissues for 4—5 days. During the early stages of the disease, virus isolation, nucleic acid or antigen detection can be used to diagnose the infection.

Clinical microbiology of the dengue virus

The alternative name for dengue, "breakbone fever", comes from the associated muscle and joint pains. Associated problems Dengue can occasionally affect several other body systems[18] either in isolation or along with the classic dengue symptoms.

Other members of the same genus include yellow fever virusWest Nile virusZika virusSt. Louis encephalitis virusJapanese encephalitis virustick-borne encephalitis virusKyasanur forest disease virusand Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus.

The virus seems to have no detrimental effect on the mosquito, which remains infected for life. It binds to and enters white blood cellsand reproduces inside the cells while they move throughout the body.

The white blood cells respond by producing a number of signaling proteins, such as cytokines and interferonswhich are responsible for many of the symptoms, such as the fever, the flu-like symptoms, and the severe pains.

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In severe infection, the virus production inside the body is greatly increased, and many more organs such as the liver and the bone marrow can be affected. Fluid from the bloodstream leaks through the wall of small blood vessels into body cavities due to capillary permeability.

As a result, less blood circulates in the blood vessels, and the blood pressure becomes so low that it cannot supply sufficient blood to vital organs. Furthermore, dysfunction of the bone marrow due to infection of the stromal cells leads to reduced numbers of platelets, which are necessary for effective blood clotting; this increases the risk of bleeding, the other major complication of dengue fever.

Immature virus particles are transported to the Golgi apparatusthe part of the cell where some of the proteins receive necessary sugar chains glycoproteins.

The now mature new viruses are released by exocytosis. They are then able to enter other white blood cells, such as monocytes and macrophages. Some serotypes of dengue virus appear to have mechanisms to slow down this process. Interferon also activates the adaptive immune systemwhich leads to the generation of antibodies against the virus as well as T cells that directly attack any cell infected with the virus.

The most widely accepted hypothesis is that of antibody-dependent enhancement ADE. The exact mechanism behind ADE is unclear.

Clinical microbiology of the dengue virus

It may be caused by poor binding of non-neutralizing antibodies and delivery into the wrong compartment of white blood cells that have ingested the virus for destruction.Dengue is a febrile illness caused by infection with one of four dengue viruses (DENV) transmitted by Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus mosquitoes during the taking of a blood meal [].

Infection may be asymptomatic or present with a broad range of clinical manifestations including a mild febrile illness to a life-threatening shock syndrome. Laboratory diagnosis methods for confirming dengue virus infection may involve detection of the virus, viral nucleic acid, antigens or antibodies, or a combination of these techniques.

After the onset of illness, the virus can be detected in serum, plasma, circulating blood cells and other tissues for 4–5 days.

Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne tropical disease caused by the dengue virus. Symptoms typically begin three to fourteen days after infection. This may include a high fever, headache, vomiting, muscle and joint pains, and a characteristic skin rash. Recovery generally takes two to seven days.

In a small proportion of cases, the disease develops into the life-threatening dengue .

Dengue fever

Microbiology is the study of all living organisms that are too small to be visible with the naked eye. This includes bacteria, archaea, viruses, fungi, prions, protozoa and algae, collectively known as 'microbes'. TEXT. Dengue virus (DV) infections are transmitted to humans by Aedes sp. mosquitoes and are the leading cause of arbovirus-associated disease and death in tropical and subtropical locales throughout the world (2, 6, 15).Symptoms associated with primary infection by any of the 4 DV serotypes include fever, headache, and muscle and joint pains (6, 15).

Immunoaffinity-purified NS1 derived from dengue 2 virus-infected cells was used as a standard to establish a detection sensitivity of approximately 4 ng/ml for an assay employing monoclonal antibodies recognizing a dengue 2 serotype-specific epitope.

Dengue Disease - microbewiki