Claim your FREE 2: Spark new ideas Be aware of structure and format from the dissertation Understand what to incorporate in each chapter plus much more. The scholars of information technology are analyzing how their existing system works?
Chong Ho Yu, Ph. Due to the relative newness of the medium and the vagueness of the scope of WBI, there isn't a unified theoretical framework for WBI evaluation. To fill this gap, a structural framework with an emphasis on input-process-output is proposed. The framework also functions as a reference for conceptualizing an evaluation from the abstract level to the specific level.
The input-process-output structural framework see Figure 1 is a specification of how different input, intermediate, and output variables form causal relationships in a system.
The structural framework has four levels of abstraction: The highest layer of the framework has the highest of abstraction and vice versa. The degree of specification increases as the layer goes down.
A theory is an implementation of a paradigm, a model is a specification of a theory, and a measurement is the quantification or the empirical representation of a model.
Implementations of the structural framework may vary in the theory, model, and measurement levels. However, the emphasis on input-process-output is firmly embedded in the paradigm level.
Paradigm In this writing, the meaning of "paradigm" is adopted from the usage by Thomas Kuhn In Kuhn's view, a paradigm is a set of metaphysical beliefs and underlying assumptions that make up a theoretical framework.
In other words, a paradigm establishes the "boundary of the playground" and "rules of the game" for researchers in the discipline. The proposed structural framework endorses a paradigm that emphasizes input-process-output of human learning inspired by cognitive psychology.
This paradigm challenges the input-output emphasis under a "black-box" approach.
Under a "black box" approach, an input, which is usually a treatment, is delivered to the intended audience. Afterwards, the output, which is usually an observable outcome, is evaluated and the effectiveness of the treatment is inferred.
This input-output approach leaves many important questions unanswered such as "What are the properties of the instructional media? In Behaviorism, only stimulus input and responses output are emphasized for controlling behaviors. In this system the details of underlying structure, mechanism, and dynamics are either unknown or regarded as unimportant Fontana, With the increasing popularity of cognitive psychology, questions about human mental structure and process are being addressed.
For instance, "How is knowledge represented? In the context of Web-based instruction, questions about relationships between instructional media and learning processes should be raised. For example, "How does hyperlinking enhance connectivity of human schema?
How does asynchronous collaboration on the Internet improve intrinsic motivation? The first dimension is the level of abstraction. As shown in Figure 1, approaching the research from the abstract layer to the specific layer can be visualized as a vertical process: The second dimension is the input-process-output stream.
As seen in Figure 1, this streaming can be viewed as a horizontal process: In the following section, each component will be explained in terms of the second dimension.Input, Process and Output In any business, the first thing you have to think about is the input.
The input varies depending on what kind of a business you are thinking of. Ill be discussing the inputs, Processes and outputs with regards to farming.
Input-Process-Output Model Much of the work in organizations is accomplished through teams. It is therefore crucial to determine the factors that lead to effective as well as ineffective team processes and to better specify how, why, and when they contribute.
The input–process–output (IPO) model, or input-process-output pattern, is a widely used approach in systems analysis and software engineering for describing the structure of an information processing program or other process. With this, an entire input – Process – Output diagram continues to be organized.
Manual System Input – Process – Creation of the present System Here’s a port process output system produced by hand to look for the effective .
Theoretical Framework The theoretical framework that will be used in the study is the Input-Process- Output Model. In the IPO model, a process is viewed as a series of boxes (processing elements) connected by inputs and outputs.5/5(2).
Input, Process and Output In any business, the first thing you have to think about is the input. The input varies depending on what kind of a business you are thinking of.