Liquids and solids

Like the particles of a solid, particles in a liquid are subject to intermolecular attraction; however, liquid particles have more space between them, so they are not fixed in position. The attraction between the particles in a liquid keeps the volume of the liquid constant. The movement of the particles causes the liquid to be variable in shape.

Liquids and solids

Some wells require that different types be used at different parts in the hole, or that some types be used in combination with others.

Properties of Matter: Liquids Vapor Definition A vapor refers to a gas-phase material that that normally exists as a liquid or solid under a given set of conditions. As long as the temperature is below a certain point the critical temperature; this varies for each substancethe vapor can be condensed into a liquid or solid with the application of pressure.
Accessibility links Solids are objects you can hold and maintain their shape.

The various types of fluid generally fall into a few broad categories: Compressed air is pumped either down the bore hole's annular space or down the drill string itself. A foaming agent is a good example of a polymer.

Water by itself is sometimes used. In offshore drilling sea water is typically used while drilling the top section of the hole. Most basic water-based mud systems begin with water, then clays and other chemicals are incorporated into the water to create a homogeneous blend resembling something between chocolate milk and a malt depending on viscosity.

The clay is usually a combination of native clays that are suspended in the fluid while drilling, or specific types of clay that are processed and sold as additives for the WBM system.

The most common of these is bentonitefrequently referred to in the oilfield as "gel". Gel likely makes reference to the fact that while the fluid is being pumped, it can be very thin and free-flowing like chocolate milkthough when pumping is stopped, the static fluid builds a "gel" structure that resists flow.

Liquids and solids

When an adequate pumping force is applied to "break the gel", flow resumes and the fluid returns to its previously free-flowing state. Many other chemicals e. Oil-based mud is a mud where the base fluid is a petroleum product such as diesel fuel.

Oil-based muds are used for many reasons, including increased lubricity, enhanced shale inhibition, and greater cleaning abilities with less viscosity. Oil-based muds also withstand greater heat without breaking down. The use of oil-based muds has special considerations, including cost, environmental considerations such as disposal of cuttings in an appropriate place, and the exploratory disadvantages of using oil-based mud, especially in wildcat wells.

Using an oil-based mud interferes with the geochemical analysis of cuttings and cores and with the determination of API gravity because the base fluid cannot be distinguished from oil returned from the formation.

Synthetic-based fluid is a mud where the base fluid is a synthetic oil. This is most often used on offshore rigs because it has the properties of an oil-based mud, but the toxicity of the fluid fumes are much less than an oil-based fluid.

This is important when men work with the fluid in an enclosed space such as an offshore drilling rig. Synthetic-based fluid poses the same environmental and analysis problems as oil-based fluid.

On a drilling rigmud is pumped from the mud pits through the drill string where it sprays out of nozzles on the drill bit, cleaning and cooling the drill bit in the process. The mud then carries the crushed or cut rock "cuttings" up the annular space "annulus" between the drill string and the sides of the hole being drilled, up through the surface casing, where it emerges back at the surface.

Cuttings are then filtered out with either a shale shakeror the newer shale conveyor technology, and the mud returns to the mud pits.

The mud pits let the drilled "fines" settle; the pits are also where the fluid is treated by adding chemicals and other substances.

Because of the risk of a fire or an explosion if they ignite, special monitoring sensors and explosion-proof certified equipment is commonly installed, and workers are advised to take safety precautions.

The mud is then pumped back down the hole and further re-circulated.

Liquids and solids

After testing, the mud is treated periodically in the mud pits to ensure properties which optimize and improve drilling efficiency, borehole stability, and other requirements listed below.

The main functions of a drilling mud can be summarized as follows: Its ability to do so depends on cutting size, shape, and density, and speed of fluid traveling up the well annular velocity.

These considerations are analogous to the ability of a stream to carry sediment; large sand grains in a slow-moving stream settle to the stream bed, while small sand grains in a fast-moving stream are carried along with the water.KS2 Science Solids, liquids and gases learning resources for adults, children, parents and teachers.

We can express these states of matter pictorially. Of course, the molecules are shown millions of times their actual size: It is quite common for materials to undergo phase transitions, i.e.

a change between one state and example, solids can melt to give liquids; the reverse process is freezing. Liquids Welcome Kreature liquids and solids at the Handlebar. Home Solids Liquids Welcome Kreature × CRAFTED WITH LOVE × × SUPPORTING FARMERS WHO BELIEVE IN WHAT THEY PRODUCE × L&S started in Two people wanted to create an outlet for themselves to pursue.

Buy Gases, Liquids and Solids 3ed on FREE SHIPPING on qualified orders. Gases, Liquids, and Solids. Gases, liquids and solids are all made up of atoms, molecules, and/or ions, but the behaviors of these particles differ in the three phases.

The following figure illustrates the microscopic differences. Microscopic view of a gas. Microscopic view of a liquid. Water is the only common substance that is naturally found as a solid, liquid or gas. Solids, liquids and gases are known as states of matter. Before we look at why things are called solids, liquids or gases, we need to know more about matter.

Matter can be a confusing word because it has several.

BBC Bitesize - KS3 Chemistry - Solids, liquids and gases - Revision 1