The neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying appetite and feeding behavior are being clarified. Hunger and satiety signals from the GI tract, adipose tissue, and various endocrine systems regulate a vast array of hypothalamic hormones that modulate feeding behavior. Leptin, a polypeptide hormone secreted by adipose tissue, is thought to be a major satiety factor and central regulator on hypothalamic feeding centers. Leptin may cause appetite suppression by down-regulating endogenous cannabinoids, such as anandamide and 2-arachidonyl glycerol and other appetite-stimulating peptides.
Synthetic marijuana is a designer drug in which herbs, incense or other leafy materials are sprayed with lab-synthesized liquid chemicals to mimic the effect of tetrahydrocannabinol THCthe psychoactive ingredient in the naturally grown cannabis sativa plant.
Spice or K2 became increasingly popular with high school students and young adults because it was legally obtainable from convenience stores, smoke shops, and online - until July when a national ban was enacted against the sale of synthetic cannabinoids in the U. However, case reports and surveys have identified serious toxicities that occur with use of synthetic marijuana, and some users have required emergency room treatment.
The chemicals synthesized for the production of synthetic pot can be more potent than natural THC found in marijuana, and may have more dangerous side effects.
Little is known of the pharmacological profile of the chemicals or their by-products. How Does Synthetic Marijuana Work? Synthetic marijuana is ingested in a similar manner to cannabis, either smoked alone in a joint or other device, such as a pipe or a bong, or rolled into a joint with tobacco or natural marijuana.
Synthetic pot may also be baked into foods, such as brownies, or made into tea. Synthetic marijuana users report experiences similar to those produced by natural marijuana -- elevated mood, relaxation, and altered perception. Some users report psychotic effects like extreme anxiety, paranoia, and hallucinations.
Some synthesized compounds have been noted to be times more potent than the average THC found in marijuana. In addition, as with many illicit designer drugs, the chemical composition may be unknown and some products may be laced with other toxic chemicals.
The stronger binding of the synthetic chemicals to the THC receptor sites in the brain may lead to the extreme anxiety and paranoia that have been reported in some users. Extent of Synthetic Marijuana Use In the Monitoring the the Future, a survey on adolescent drug use, past year use of synthetic marijuana use was second only to use of natural marijuana in high school seniors.
Roughly 36 percent of U.
However, inpast-year use of synthetic marijuana among high school seniors sharply decreased, from Interestingly, when surveyed about the use of natural marijuana, trends to showed that past-month use increased from 5. These increases continue to parallel softening attitudes about the perceived risk of harm and disapproval associated with marijuana use.
While the chemicals sprayed on plant material to produce synthetic marijuana were previously not easily detectable in standard drug tests, that is changing and some drug tests now include assays to identify five common compounds found in synthetic marijuana. The Drug Enforcement Administration DEA has designated many active chemicals most frequently found in synthetic marijuana as Schedule I controlled substances, making it illegal to sell, buy, or possess them.
Manufacturers of synthetic marijuana products attempt to evade these legal restrictions by substituting different chemicals in their mixtures, while the DEA continues to monitor the situation and evaluate the need for updating the list of banned cannabinoid derivatives. Complications due to synthetic pot use include high blood pressurenausea, vomiting, anxiety, agitation and seizures.
The patients demonstrated varying degrees of catatonia an inability to respond to verbal or physical stimulation - including pain an elevated heart rate, agitation, anxiety, dizziness, headaches, excessive sweating, slowed speech, and confusion.
Two of the patients recovered to normal function in three to four hours, while the third patient was kept in hospital overnight before being released. One report suggests some of these products may contain heavy metal residues that may be harmful to health.
Other reports claim synthetic marijuana can be addicting -- users who have had even unpleasant experiences crave additional drug.Third, Sativex is cheaper to manufacture because the cannabinoids come directly from the plant instead of an expensive chemical synthesis.
Still, growing your own natural marijuana in your own home garden will always be the cheapest option! Synthetic cannabinoids are sometimes misleadingly called "synthetic marijuana" (or "fake weed") because they act on the same brain cell receptors as THC, the mind-altering ingredient in marijuana.
The effects of synthetic cannabinoids can be unpredictable and severe or even life-threatening. There usually isn't any difference at all in toxicity between synthetic and natural marijuana. However, depending on the artificial synthesis methods and the final product, synthetic marijuana may .
Marijuana and Δ9-THC can have direct effects on the testes. Reductions in testicular size have been observed in rodents20 and dogs21 with administration of cannabis Their synthesis and secretion are regulated by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) from the anterior pituitary, which in turn is controlled by. Jun 04, · Cannabis acetate is a cannabis medication that we have been experimenting with, because it passes the blood brain barrier so much faster than the cannabis oil it was made from. The effect is an abrupt arrival of effects, vis a vis coming on. synthetic marijuana long-term effects The long-term effects on humans are not fully known, but poison center experts report that effects of synthetic marijuana can be life-threatening.
Drug Crimes Drug Crimes; Cultivation Of Marijuana; CULTIVATION OF MARIJUANA IN FLORIDA DEFINITION, PENALTIES, AND DEFENSES or independently by means of chemical synthesis,” or by a combination of extraction and chemical synthesis.
Not all cultivation offenses will be charged as a third degree felony. Pate, D.W., Chemical ecology of Cannabis. Journal of the International Hemp Association 2: 29, The production of cannabinoids and their associated terpenes in Cannabis is subject to environmental influences as well as hereditary determinants.
Their biosynthesis occurs in specialized glands populating the surface of all aerial structures of the plant. Probably due to the criminalization of cannabis, there has been a surge in the chemical synthesis of unnatural cannabinoids in attempt to mimic the high but allow .