PDF version Introduction During the first years of life — thought by many to be a unique period of human development — parents assume special importance.
These parenting styles are meant to describe normal variations in parenting, not deviant parenting, such as might be observed in abusive homes. The three styles[ edit ] Authoritative[ edit ] The parent is demanding and responsive.
When this style is systematically developed, it grows to fit the descriptions propagative parenting and concerted cultivation.
Authoritative parenting is characterized by a child-centered approach that holds high expectations of maturity. Authoritative parents can understand how their children are feeling and teach them how to regulate their feelings. Even with high expectations of maturity, authoritative parents are usually forgiving of any possible shortcomings.
Authoritative parents encourage children to be independent but still place limits on their actions. Often, authoritative parents produce children who are more independent and self-reliant. They also expect mature, independent, and age-appropriate behavior of children.
Punishments for misbehavior are measured and consistentnot arbitrary or violent. When punishing a child, the parent will explain his or her motive for their punishment. Children are more likely to respond to authoritative parenting punishment because it is reasonable and fair.
As a result, children of authoritative parents are more likely to be successful, well liked by those around them, generous and capable of self-determination.
Strict father model The parent is demanding but not responsive. In addition, advocates of this style often believe that the shock of aggression from someone from the outside world will be less for a child accustomed to enduring both acute and chronic stress imposed by parents.
Children raised using this type of parenting may have less social competence because the parent generally tells the child what to do instead of allowing the child to choose by him or herself, making the child appear to excel in the short term but limiting development in ways that are increasingly revealed as supervision and opportunities for direct parental control decline.
Quiverfull parents often use authoritarian-style parenting[ citation needed ]. Indulgent or Permissive[ edit ] The parent is responsive but not demanding.
Indulgent parenting, also called permissive, non-directive, lenient or libertarian,  is characterized as having few behavioral expectations for the child.
Indulgent parents do not require children to regulate themselves or behave appropriately. As adults, children of indulgent parents will pay less attention to avoiding behaviors which cause aggression in others[ citation needed ].
Permissive parents try to be "friends" with their child, and do not play a parental role. Permissive parents also allow children to make their own decisions, giving them advice as a friend would. This type of parenting is very lax, with few punishments or rules.
Other permissive parents compensate for what they missed as children, and as a result give their children both the freedom and materials that they lacked in their childhood.In conclusion it appears that the most effective parental influences on a child’s self-esteem are the authoritative parenting style combined with warmth and the parenting control method of.
It's this general pattern--this emotional climate--that researchers refer to as "parenting style" (Darling and Steinberg ). And research suggests that parenting styles have important effects on the ways that children develop. parenting style wi11 have a significantly positive influence on global self-esteem and that in comparison, authoritarian and pennissive parenting styles are expected to have a less positive influence on children's self-esteem.
-Three-way interaction influenced outcome of any parenting style-Child's temperment and development-Parents qualities; personality, marital reltionship, mental health-Social and cultural context-Given a multicultural and multicontextual perspective, more hesitate to recommend any particular parenting style.
Researchers have studied parenting styles extensively. Many studies have aimed to find a greater connection that shows the impact of each parenting style on the development of the child and how its influence in various aspects of life including self-confidence, self-esteem, academic achievement, and personality.
The child-parent relationship has a major influence on most aspects of child development. When optimal, parenting skills and behaviours have a positive impact on children’s self-esteem, school achievement, cognitive development and behaviour.