The pre-test was carried out at the first meeting prior to the learning activities. After the pretest, the next meetings were used to carry out the learning activities based on the lesson plan which had been compiled either for the treatment or control class. Learning activities at the next meetings were carried out by implementing experiments of using smartphones in the treatment class and without implementing experiments of using smartphones in the control class.
Received Jun 11; Accepted Jan This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background Because of the quick development and widespread use of mobile phones, and their vast effect on communication and interactions, it is important to study possible negative health effects of mobile phone exposure.
The overall aim of this study was to investigate whether there are associations between psychosocial aspects of mobile phone use and mental health symptoms in a prospective cohort of young adults.
Mobile phone exposure variables included frequency of use, but also more qualitative variables: Mental health outcomes included current stress, sleep disorders, and symptoms of depression.
Prevalence ratios PRs were calculated for cross-sectional and prospective associations between exposure variables and mental health outcomes for men and women separately. Results There were cross-sectional associations between high compared to low mobile phone use and stress, sleep disturbances, and symptoms of depression for the men and women.
When excluding respondents reporting mental health symptoms at baseline, high mobile phone use was associated with sleep disturbances and symptoms of depression for the men and symptoms of depression for the women at 1-year follow-up. All qualitative variables had cross-sectional associations with mental health outcomes.
In prospective analysis, overuse was associated with stress and sleep disturbances for women, and high accessibility stress was associated with stress, sleep disturbances, and symptoms of depression for both men and women.
Conclusions High frequency of mobile phone use at baseline was a risk factor for mental health outcomes at 1-year follow-up among the young adults. The risk for reporting mental health symptoms at follow-up was greatest among those who had perceived accessibility via mobile phones to be stressful.
Background Mental health problems have been increasing among young people in Sweden and around the world [ 12 ]. Cultural and social changes in terms of increased materialism and individualism have been discussed in relation to this [ 34 ], including the possibility of a decreasing stigma about mental illness, improved screening for mental illness, and increased help-seeking behaviors [ 5 ].
Because of the quick development and widespread use of mobile phones, and their vast effect on communication and interactions in work and private life, it is important to study possible negative health effects of the exposure.
Extensive focus has been on exposure to electromagnetic fields EMF. Self-reported symptoms associated with using mobile phones most commonly include headaches, earache, and warmth sensations [ 67 ], and sometimes also perceived concentration difficulties and fatigue [ 6 ].
However, EMF exposure due to mobile phone use is not currently known to have any major health effects [ 8 ]. Another aspect of exposure is ergonomics. Musculoskeletal symptoms due to intensive texting on a mobile phone have been reported [ 9 ], and techniques used for text entering have been studied in connection with developing musculoskeletal symptoms [ 10 ].
However, our perspective is predominantly psychosocial. In a previous study we found prospective associations between high information and communications technology ICT use, including high frequency of mobile phone use, and reported mental health symptoms among young adult college and university students [ 11 ], but concluded that the causal mechanisms are unclear.
The study was followed by a qualitative interview study with 32 subjects with high computer or mobile phone use, who had reported mental health symptoms at 1-year follow-up. These factors were also perceived as direct sources of stress and mental health symptoms.
Consequences of high quantitative mobile phone exposure included mental overload, disturbed sleep, the feeling of never being free, role conflicts, and feelings of guilt due to inability to return all calls and messages.
Furthermore, addiction or dependency was an area of concern, as was worry about possible hazards associated with exposure to electromagnetic fields. For several participants in the study, however, a major stressor was to not be available. The study concluded that there are many factors in different domains that should be taken into consideration in epidemiological studies concerning associations between ICT use and mental health symptoms [ 12 ].
Based on the previous studies, we wanted to focus on some aspects of mobile phone exposure other than mere quantity of use. For example, demands on being available or reachable, regardless of time and space, could be argued to be a stressor irrespective of actual frequency of use.
Another key determinant may be the extent to which a person actually perceives his or her own accessibility as stressful. Furthermore, accessibility implies the possibility to be disturbed at all hours, even at nighttime. In a study among Finnish adolescents, intensive mobile phone use was linked to poor perceived health among girls, both directly and through poor sleep and waking-time tiredness [ 13 ].
Another area of concern could be addiction to the mobile phone. Intensive mobile phone use has been associated with dependency on the mobile phone [ 1415 ], and problematic mobile phone use has been a focus in the literature concerning psychological aspects of mobile phone use, where criteria for substance addiction diagnoses or behavioral addictions [ 1617 ] have been used to define problematic use [ 18 - 24 ] including compulsive short messaging service SMS use [ 20 ].
In this context, heavy or problem mobile phone use overuse has been associated with somatic complaints, anxiety, and insomnia [ 21 ], depression [ 2124 ], psychological distress [ 22 ], and an unhealthy lifestyle [ 25 ]. However, possible positive effects of mobile phone use on mental health can also be hypothesized, for instance the ease of reaching someone to talk to when in need, implying access to social support.
Social support buffers negative effects of stress [ 26 ], while low social support is a risk factor associated with mental health symptoms [ 27 ].Questionnaire, verbal interview and online survey had been distributed specifically to smart phone user as the specify group.
The online survey and questionnaire was sent via .
15 question - This is a short questionnaire about mobile phones. It would be great if you fill it. Thank You ;) 1. What is Your name?
| 2. How old are You?
|The pre-test was carried out at the first meeting prior to the learning activities. After the pretest, the next meetings were used to carry out the learning activities based on the lesson plan which had been compiled either for the treatment or control class.|
| 3. The survey shows that Smartphones are used heavily for making phones calls, checking email, viewing non-class web pages, and texting/IMing. They are used less often for viewing class-related web pages, reading documents, connecting to Moobilenet, and listening to non-class podcasts/music.
Discussing the effect of electromagnetic waves on human brains the author introduced the latest research results conducted by the scientists and facts about the influence of wave on the human brains and cancer development.
Extensive usage of smartphones has an effect on human’s upper extremities, back, and neck. Discussing the effect of electromagnetic waves on human brains the author introduced the latest research results conducted by the scientists and facts about the influence of wave on the human brains and cancer development.
Extensive usage of smartphones has an effect on . The result of the data analysis showed that the value of t calculation > t t abulation at the significance level , so it is concluded that learning with smartphones has the effect on students’ critical thinking skill in relation to the concept of biodiversity.