The inherited English language term for this concept is folkused alongside the latinate people since the late Middle English period.
Hereditarian ideology and European constructions of race Hereditary statuses versus the rise of individualism Inheritance as the basis of individual social position is an ancient tenet of human historyextending to some point after the beginnings of agriculture about 10, bce.
Wills and testaments capture this principle, and caste systems, such as that of India, reflect the expression of another form of this principle, buttressed by religious beliefs. Arguments for the divine right of kings and succession laws in European societies mirrored deep values of hereditary status.
But many trends in European cultural history over the 18th and 19th centuries contradicted the idea of social placement by kinship fiat. Ever since the enclosure movement in England in the 15th century, the transformation to wage labourthe rise of merchant capitalism, and the entry into public consciousness of the significance of private property, Europeans have been conditioned to the values of individualism and of progress through prosperity.
Wage labour strengthened ideas of individual freedom and advancement. The philosophy of autonomous individualism took root in western European societies, beginning first in England, and became the engine of social mobility in these rapidly changing areas.
For their descendants in America, the limitations of hereditary status were antithetical to the values of individual freedom, at least freedom for those of European descent.
Reflecting and promoting these values were the works of some of the Enlightenment writers and philosophers, including VoltaireJean-Jacques RousseauJohn Lockeand Montesquieu. Their writings had a greater impact on Americans than on their compatriots.
Their advocacy of human freedom and the minimal intrusion of government was uniquely interpreted by Americans. European societies had long been structured into class divisions that had a strong hereditary basis, but the gulf between those who benefited from overseas trade and the impoverished masses who competed for low-paying jobs or survived without work in the gutters of towns and cities widened dramatically during the age of empire building.
In France the dissatisfaction of the masses erupted periodically, reaching a peak in the French Revolution ofwhich overthrew the Bourbon monarch and brought Napoleon I to power.
As early as the turn of the 18th century, some intellectuals were concerned with these seething class conflicts that occasionally burst forth into violence in France.
He maintained that the noble classes were originally Germanic Franks who conquered the inferior Gauls, Romans, and others and established themselves as the ruling class.
The Franks derived their superiority from German forebears, who were a proud, freedom-loving people with democratic institutions, pure laws, and monogamous marriage. They were great warriors, disciplined and courageous, and they ruled by the right of might.
According to Boulainvilliers, they carried and preserved their superiority in their blood. The Germanic myth and English constructions of an Anglo-Saxon past In England, from the time that Henry VIII broke with the Roman Catholic Church and Protestant sects emerged on the horizon, historians, politicians, and philosophers had been wrestling with the creation of a new English identity.
Indeed, European powers were soon to be caught up in the ethnic rivalries, extreme chauvinismand intolerance out of which all the nation-states of Europe would be created. The English sought their new identity in the myths and heroics of the past and strove to create an image of antiquity that would rival those of other great civilizations.
They created a myth of an Anglo-Saxon people, distinguished from the VikingsPictsCeltsRomans, Normansand others who had inhabited English territory. In their histories the Anglo-Saxons were a freedom-loving people who had advanced political institutions, an early form of representative government, and a pure religion long before the Norman Conquest.
Although in part the English were concerned about the identification and preservation of ancient institutions to justify the distinctiveness of their political and ecclesiastical structures, they also wanted to establish and glorify a distinguished ancestry.
The English scholars and Boulainvilliers derived their depictions of the Germans and their arguments from a common source, the works of Tacitusa Roman historian born in the middle of the 1st century ce.
At the end of the 1st century, Tacitus had published the Germaniaa study of the German tribes to the north of Rome. It is the first, and most comprehensiveethnographic study compiled in the ancient world and remains today a good description of a people seen at that time as barbarians.
Tacitus idealized the simple, unadulterated lives of the German tribes and contrasted what he saw as their positive cultural features with the decadence and decline of the Romans.
The German tribes were indeed the first noble savage s of the Western world.November 21, • At first, the results of Nabil Ayers' DNA test made him feel less black than ever. But months later, those results uncovered his ties to a unique and specific black experience. Race: Race, the idea that the human species is divided into distinct groups on the basis of inherited physical and behavioral differences.
Genetic studies in the late 20th century refuted the existence of biogenetically distinct races, and scholars now argue that “races” are cultural interventions.
Decades of research by organizational scientists, psychologists, sociologists, economists and demographers show that socially diverse groups (that is, those with a diversity of race, ethnicity.
Race and ethnicity are important concepts and plays a great deal among our society. Very few of us are aware of the difference between race and ethnicity. Many of us assumed that is the same definition.
In Sociology this terms have a . Race is a very real topic in American society. Although race is a subject that is not easily and very scarcely talked about, the conversation is much needed and should be addressed at a much more frequency. Race and ethnicity come up in some way, shape, fashion or form in our everyday lives whether.
Birth Name: Rashida Leah Jones. Place of Birth: Los Angeles, California, United States. Date of Birth: February 25, Ethnicity: *African-American, with some.